Species/isolates detected in India
Species/isolates Area Source
S.seemae,S.masoodi UP Ali et al., 2005
S.thermophilum Delhi Ganguly & Singh,2000
Steinernema sp. Assam,Delhi,Gujarat,H.P.,U.P Kaushal et al., 2000
Steinernema sp., Heterorhabditis spp., Rajasthan Parihar & Siddiqui, 2002
Steinernema sp.,S.riobrave,H.indica Gujarat Vyas et al.,1998; Ganguly et al.,2002.
S.pakistanensis Haryana Walia et al., 2006.
S.asiaticum, S.thermophilum Assam, AP Padmakumari et al.,2008, Prasad et al.,2008
Steinernema spp. Andaman & Nicobar Islands Prasad et al., 2001.
S.siamkayai Tamil Nadu Subramanian, 2003.
H.indica Coimbatore,TN Poinar et al.,1992.
H.bacteriophora , H.indica Tamil Nadu Sivakumar et al., 1988, Ambika, 1995.
S.tami Jorhat,Assam Hussaini et al.,2001a
S.abbasi IARI,New Delhi Hussaini et al.,2001
S.bicornutum IARI,New Delhi Hussaini et al.,2001a
S.carpocapsae, Steinernema sp.SSL2 Bangalore, Minicoy,Aligarh Hussaini et al.,2001a
H.indica,Heterorhabditis sp. Minicoy,Aligarh,Kanpur,Chidambaram,Kanyakumari, Bangalore,Coimbatore,IARI,New Delhi Hussaini (PDBC)
S.carpocapsae Meghalaya
S.carpocapsae Kerala Varadarasan et al., 2006
S.carpocapsae Uttaranchal Misra & Khan 2003
S.carpocapsae Kashmir Zaki & Mantoo,2003
S.glaseri,S.siamkayi,S.glaseri,H.indica Tamil Nadu, Kerala Banu et al.,2005;Banu,2003
H.indica,Steinernema sp. Kerala Sosamma,2003; Sosamma & Rasmi,2001
H.indica,Steinernema sp. Meghalaya Sylesha,2003
Heterorhabditis spp.,Steinernema spp.
Nagpur Gokte-Narkhedkar,et al.,2001a.
Heterorhabditis spp.,Steinernema spp.
Rajasthan Rajkumar et al.,2003a
Steinernema sp. Kerala Josephrajkumar, 1993
Steinernema sp. Rajasthan Aruna Parihar et al., 2003
Steinernema sp. UP Shah & Azmi, 2005
Molecular characterization
of Steinernema sp.
Delhi Umarao, 2004

1. Haukeland-S. Entomopathogenic nematodes found in Norway. 1993. Norwegian-Journal-of-Agricultural-Sciences. 7:1, 17-27; 15 ref.
AB: Soil samples were taken in southern Norway to investigate the occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. Nematodes in the genus Steinernema were recovered from 18% of the samples collected using the Galleria mellonella baiting technique. The survey showed that Steinernema spp. are found naturally in Norwegian soils, and appear to be most common in Vestfold. Heterorhabditidae nematodes were not isolated in this study.

2. Tangchitsomkid-N; Sontirat-S; Nuchanart-Tangchitsomkid; Suebsak-Sontirat. 1998. Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Thailand. Nematology Section, Plant Pathology and Microbiology Division, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

AB:A soil survey of indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematode was conducted in 42 provinces of Thailand between June 1996 to March 1998. A total of 306 soil samples were extracted using Galleria baiting technique. The nematodes were recovered from 9 out of 42 locations (21.4%). The identification using morphological characteristics of infective-stage juveniles and adults revealed 8 isolates of Steinernema sp. and 1 isolate of Heterorhabditis sp. The nematodes were collected from central plains at the temperature range of 24-270C (10-15 cm deep from soil surface) and 29-370C (at soil surface), and they were heat-tolerant isolates.

3. Akhurst-RJ; Brooks-WM. 1984. The distribution of entomophilic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) in North Carolina Journal-of-Invertebrate-Pathology. 1984, 44:2, 140-145; 1 fig.; 20 ref.
AB:Over 500 samples of soil from cropland, vineyards, orchards, pasture and forest habitats throughout North Carolina were tested for the presence of steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes by baiting with Galleria mellonella larvae. Nematodes were isolated from 13 of 14 locations and from each habitat. Heterorhabditis heliothidis was the species most commonly found (13 locations) with Neoaplectana glaseri, N. carpocapsae and an undescribed steinernematid species being found at 1 or 2 locations. The primary form of the bacterial symbiont of N. glaseri was isolated for the 1st time.

4. Hominick-WM; Briscoe-BR. Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in British soils. Parasitology, 100:2, 295-302; 19 ref.
AB: Soil from 403 hedgerow, roadside verge, woodland, heathland or field sites was assessed for presence of entomopathogenic rhabditid nematodes with a Galleria [mellonella] larva baiting technique. Steinernematids were recovered from 48.6% of the sites but only one site yielded Heterorhabditis sp. The species recovered most frequently was Steinernema bibionis [Neoaplectana bibionis]. Another unidentified Steinernema sp. was also isolated. Prevalence of steinernematids in the different types of habitat formed a continuum so that roadside verges harboured them most often while heathland sites yielded them least often. Mean soil temperatures at 5 cm were about 15°C in fields and verges, 13°C in hedgerows and heathland and 12°C in woodland. Prevalence of the nematodes varied in different parts of Britain and was influenced by soil type. They were associated with calcareous soils, especially those with a calcareous subsoil horizon. Soils which are periodically or seasonally water-logged were suitable. Soils enriched by humus and hence high in organic matter frequently harboured the nematodes and some suitable soils had significant clay contents or sub soils high in clay. It appears that the two steinernematids are relatively unspecialized species, occurring in diverse habitats and soil types and are adapted to cooler temperatures.

5. Griffin-CT; Moore-JF; Downes-MJ. 1991. Occurrence of insect-parasitic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in the Republic of Ireland. Nematologica. 37: 1, 92-100; 23 ref.
AB: Insect parasitic nematodes were surveyed in the Irish Republic between October 1986 and October 1987. A total of 551 soil samples were tested for the presence of nematodes by baiting with Galleria mellonella larvae. Steinernema feltiae [Neoaplectana feltiae] and S. affinis were recovered from 7.1 and 3.3% of samples, respectively. Heterorhabditis sp. was found in one sample. There was a significant association between locality (county) and frequency of nematode recovery. Nematodes were more frequently recovered from sandy and peaty soils than from clays and clay loams, but differences between soil types were not significant. Nematodes were present in tilled fields (41/365 samples), grassland (13/143) and woodland (4/43). There was a significant association between sampling time and frequency of recovery. Nematodes were less likely to be recovered in May-June than at other times of the year.

6. Amarasinghe-LD; Hominick-WM; Briscoe-BR; Reid-AP. 1994. Occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Sri Lanka. Journal-of-Helminthology. 68:4, 277-286; 34 ref.
AB: Entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) were isolated from Sri Lankan soils using the Galleria mellonella baiting technique. Samples collected from different agro-ecological regions and different habitat types revealed that the presence of nematodes was restricted to sandy coastal soils. 2 heterorhabditid and 3 steinernematid types were discovered within 5-100 m of the sea. Members of both families were equally prevalent. However, no parasitized insects were found although insect species were encountered which are potentially natural hosts. These nematodes were present at high temperatures (some above 30°C) and neither the monsoon rain nor the drought had any effect on their prevalence.

7. Rosa-JS; Bonifassi-E; Amaral-J; Lacey-LA; Simoes-N; Laumond-C. 2000. Natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernema, Heterorhabditis) in the Azores. Journal-of-Nematology. 32:2, 215-222; 40 ref.
AB: A soil survey for entomopathogenic nematodes was conducted throughout the nine islands of the Azorean archipelago. Forty-six out of 1,180 samples (3.9%) were positive, with Heterorhabditis spp. isolated from 30 sites on six islands and Steinernema spp. isolated from 16 sites on three islands. Sao Miguel and Terceira Islands were positive for both genera, and Pico Island was positive only for Steinernema. Entomopathogenic nematodes were found from sea level up to 750 m. Seventy percent of the samples positive for Heterorhabditis were collected below 150 m, whereas 62.5% of the samples positive for Steinernema were collected above 300 m. Heterorhabditis was not isolated above 450 m. Steinernema was collected mostly in loamy-sand and sandy-loam soils with a pH below 6, whereas Heterorhabditis was mostly collected in sandy and loamy-sand soils with pH higher than 6. Steinernema and Heterorhabditis were found in cropland, orchards, and pastures, while Heterorhabditis was found also in woodland and native vegetation.

8. Stack-CM; Easwaramoorthy-SG; Metha-UK; Downes-MJ; Griffin-CT; Burnell-AM. 2000. Molecular characterisation of Heterorhabditis indica isolates from India, Kenya, Indonesia and Cuba. Nematology. 2:5, 477-487; 52 ref.
AB: Isolates of Heterorhabditis were identified as H. indica using the following molecular diagnostic features: hybridisation to a H. indica specific satellite DNA probe; AluI and MboI restriction profiles of the rDNA ITS PCR product and the AluI profile of the rDNA IGS PCR product. The Kenyan isolates represent a distinct subgroup of H. indica. These isolates lacked one of the two HinfI restriction sites which are present in the rDNA ITS product of all the other isolates tested and they also differed from other H. indica isolates in their rDNA IGS HaeIII restriction profile. The Indian isolates are inter-fertile. The Kenyan isolates are inter-fertile but only one Kenyan isolate, Ki3, produced viable progeny when crossed with H. indica LN2. The four Indonesian isolates are inter-fertile, but only one Indonesian isolate (INA H1) produced viable hybrids when crossed with H. indica LN2. INA H1 was also inter-fertile with the Kenyan isolate Ki3.

9. Iraki-N; Salah-N; Sansour-MA; Segal-D; Glazer-I; Johnigk-SA; Hussein-MA; Ehlers-RU. 2000. Isolation and characterization of two entomopathogenic nematode strains, Heterorhabditis indica (Nematoda, Rhabditida), from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories. Journal of Applied Entomology. 124:9-10,375-380; 28 ref.
AB: Two entomopathogenic nematode strains (Beth 11 and Beth 22) were isolated by trapping with larvae of Galleria mellonella from soil samples taken from the fields near Bethlehem, West Bank. The total length of the nematode dauer larvae fall within the description for Heterorhabditis indica. Cross breeding experiments confirmed the designation of the new strains to H. indica. Offspring were recorded when males or females of the Bethlehem strains were cultured together with males or females of the H. indica type strain LN2. No offspring were produced by crosses of the new strains and H. bacteriophora. Sequence analysis of the variable region of the 16S rRNA gene of the symbiotic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens isolated from the type strain LN2 and other tropical symbionts of H. indica allowed the characterization of a specific group within the species P. luminescens. The symbiotic bacteria isolated from the Bethlehem nematode strains differ in their sequence and thus form a distinct group. The West Bank strains of H. indica are more heat resistant when compared with H. bacteriophora from temperature climatic regions. The LD70 after 26 h exposure to G. mellonella was 25 for Beth 11, 55 for Beth 22 and 160 dauer juveniles for H. bacteriophora. The new isolates seem better adapted for bio-control of Maladera matrida than the H. bacteriophora strain tested.

10. Kaushal-KK; Renuka-Rawat; Naved-SH; Siya-Nand; Rawat-R; Nand-S, 2000. Survey of entomopathogenic nematodes in India. Annals-of-Plant-Protection-Sciences. 8:1, 119-121; 7 ref.
AB: Out of the 207 soil samples collected from different habitats in India (Assam, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh) during 1999, 17 samples contained entomophilic nematodes. Ten isolates of Steinernema spp. were recovered from over half of these samples, while the rest contained 7 isolates of Heterorhabditis sp.

11. Doucet et al., 1994, reported occurrence of Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in soil samples in Cabrils, Catalogne, Spain. The presence of S. glaseri is reported for the first time outside the Nearctic and Neotropical regions.

12. Amarasinghe et al., 1994. reported entomopathogenic nematodes from Sri Lankan soils; presence of nematodes was restricted to sandy coastal soils. Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae types were discovered within 5-100m of the sea at high temperatures (some above 30°C) and neither the monsoon rain nor the drought had any effect on their prevalence.