Nontarget Effects


1. Georgis-R; Kaya-HK; Gaugler-R. 1991. Effect of steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on non-target arthropods. Environmental-Entomology, 20:3, 815-822; 43 ref.
AB: The effect of entomophilic nematodes on non-target arthropods in the laboratory, field soils, and stream in the USA were assessed. In the laboratory, adult predators were less susceptible to the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae [Neoaplectana carpocapsae]. All strain and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora NC strain than the immature stages. In field tests, entomophilic nematodes that had significantly suppressed pest populations (Popillia japonica, Scapteriscus vicinus, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, Delia radicum and Diabrotica virgifera virgifera did not adversely affect the numbers of non-target soil arthropods in comparison with the untreated control. In contrast, broad-spectrum chemical insecticides (isofenphos, ethoprop [ethoprophos] or chlorpyrifos used as chemical checks) significantly reduced or showed a tendency to reduce non-target arthropod populations. In a stream trial, S. carpocapsae DD-136 strain significantly reduced larval simuliid populations, but the non-target insects often increased in the treatment sites. Decreases in non-target populations were matched by approximately equal or greater reductions in the upstream controls. It is concluded that entomopathogenic nematodes do not adversely affect non-target arthropods when used for short-term control of insect pests.